ACL tears

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the ligaments inside your knee – it joins your thigh bone (femur) to the front of your shin bone (tibia). An ACL injury is a partial or complete tear, a stretched ligament, or a detachment of the ligament from the bone.

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia — a gradual decline in memory, thinking, behavior and social skills.


Anaesthesia means "loss of sensation".

Anal sphincter

The anal sphincter is a group of muscles at the end of the rectum that surrounds the anus and controls the release of stool,


Anaphylactic shock is a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can develop rapidly.


Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction.


Anastomosis in surgery connects two body channels together, such as blood vessels or parts of your intestines.


A brain aneurysm — also known as a cerebral aneurysm or intracranial aneurysm — is a bulge or ballooning in a blood vessel in the brain. An aneurysm often looks like a berry hanging on a stem.


Ankylosing means fused bones or other hard tissue.


Aphasia is a language disorder caused by damage in a specific area of the brain that controls language expression and comprehension.


Apnoea is where the muscles and soft tissues in the throat relax and collapse sufficiently to cause a total blockage of the airway


Appendectomy is surgery to remove the appendix, which is usually found in the right lower side of the abdomen.


Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix, a small pouch connected to your large intestine.


Asphyxia is a condition arising when the body is deprived of oxygen, causing unconsciousness or death; suffocation.


Assymerty is the lack of equality or equivalence between parts or aspects of something; lack of symmetry.

Ataxic cerebral palsy

Ataxic cerebral palsy is a rare type of cerebral palsy that causes lack of muscle tone, poor coordination and balance.

Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is an irregular and often very rapid heart rhythm.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition that affects people's behaviour.

Autoimmune diseases

An autoimmune disorder occurs when the body's immune system attacks and destroys healthy body tissue by mistake.

Bacterial endocarditis

Bacterial endocarditis causes clumps of bacteria and cells start to form on the heart valves. These clumps can break free into the bloodstream. They can then cause damage by blocking other blood vessels. They can also spread the infection to other organs.


A person is classified as having obesity and may be referred to as a bariatric patient when they have a body mass index (BMI) that is equal to or greater than 30.

Brachial plexus injury

Brachial plexus injuries typically stem from trauma to the neck, and can cause pain, weakness and numbness in the arm and hand.


Bursitis is where a bursa becomes swollen and inflamed. A bursa is a small, fluid-filled sac that acts like a cushion between tendons and bones.


A caesarean section is a surgical procedure in which a baby is born through a cut made in the mother's abdominal wall and uterus.

CT Scan

A computerised tomography (CT)scanuses X-rays and a computer to create detailed images of the inside of the body.


A caesarean section is a surgical procedure in which a baby is born through a cut made in the mother's abdominal wall and uterus.

Caput succedaneum

Caput succedaneum refers to swelling, or edema, of an infant's scalp that appears as a lump or bump on their head shortly after delivery.

Care proceedings

Care proceedings are when social services apply to the court asking a Judge to look at a child's situation and make a decision if the child or children require a legal order to keep them safe.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common neurological disorder where the median nerve, which runs from your forearm to the palm of your hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist. It causes numbness and weakness in the arm to the sufferer.


A urinary catheter is a flexible tube used to empty the bladder and collect urine in a drainage bag.


A catheter is a tube that is inserted into your bladder, allowing your urine to drain freely.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a particularly serious type of nerve root problem. There is pressure on the nerves at the very bottom of the spinal cord.


Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layers of skin and the underlying tissue.


A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp, specifically in the sub-periosteal space.


Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body.

Childcare proceedings

Care proceedings are when social services apply to the court asking a Judge to look at a child's situation and make a decision if the child or children require a legal order to keep them safe.

Chromosomal anomaly

A chromosomal anomaly is a change to a child's genetic material or DNA, which alters the baby's development before birth. This can include extra, missing or irregular chromosomes.


Cognitive means relating to the mental process involved in knowing, learning, and understanding things.

Cognitive behavioural therapy

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a type of talking therapy. It is a common treatment for a range of mental health problems.

Cognitive development issues

Cognitive impairment is when a person has trouble remembering, learning new things, concentrating, or making decisions that affect their everyday life.

Cognitive impairments

Cognitive impairment is when a person has trouble remembering, learning new things, concentrating, or making decisions that affect their everyday life.


Colitis is inflammation in your colon, which is the main part of your large intestine.


A colonoscopy is a test to check inside your bowels. This test can help find what's causing your bowel symptoms.


A colostomy is an opening (stoma) in the large intestine (colon), or the surgical procedure that creates one. The opening is formed by drawing the healthy end of the colon through an incision in the anterior abdominal wall and suturing it into place.

Comminuted fractures

A comminuted fracture is a type of broken bone. The bone is broken into more than two pieces.

Compartment syndrome

A compartment syndrome is a condition resulting from increased pressure within a confined body space, especially of the leg or forearm.


Concussion is a type of temporary brain injury.

Congenital abnormalities

Congenital abnormalities are caused by problems during the fetus's development before birth.

Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease is caused by plaque buildup in the wall of the arteries that supply blood to the heart (called coronary arteries).


Corticosteroids, often known as steroids, are an anti-inflammatory medicine.

Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the GI tract.

Cross the placenta

Only a thin membrane (placental membrane) separates the mother's blood in the intervillous space from the fetus's blood in the villi. Drugs in the mother's blood can cross this membrane into blood vessels in the villi and pass through the umbilical cord to the fetus.


Cyanosis is the medical term for when your skin, lips or nails turn blue due to a lack of oxygen in your blood.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that's usually harmless. Sometimes it causes problems in babies and people with a weakened immune system.


Diabetes is a condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high.


Dialysis is a type of treatment that helps your body remove extra fluid and waste products from your blood when the kidneys are not able to.


DocuSign is a company that creates software allowing you to sign documents electronically.

Dyskinetic cerebral palsy

Dyskinetic or athetoid cerebral palsy is a subtype of cerebral palsy that is caused by a brain injury that occurs during late pregnancy or the early birth period. Dyskinetic cerebral palsy is marked by abnormal posturing, tone, and involuntary movements.


Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling.

Ectopic pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilised egg implants outside of your uterus, usually in your fallopian tubes.


Encephalitis is a brain inflammation that occurs due to an infection such as a virus or bacteria, medication or immune system malfunction.


Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus.


An endoscopy is a test to look inside your body. A long, thin tube with a small camera inside, called an endoscope, is passed into your body through a natural opening such as your mouth.


An epidural is a procedure that injects a local anaesthetic into the space around the spinal nerves in your lower back.


Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures.


An episiotomy is a cut (incision) made in the tissue between the vaginal opening and the anus during childbirth.


An episiotomy is a cut (incision) made in the tissue between the vaginal opening and the anus during childbirth.

Erb's palsy

Erb palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is a paralysis of the arm caused by the injury to the upper group of the main nerves supplying it, specifically the upper trunk C5-C6 of the brachial plexus.


Something specifically designed for efficiency or comfort in the working environment

Faecal urgency

Fecal urgency is commonly defined as the sudden need to rush to the bathroom to empty one's bowels.

Farmer’s lung

Farmer's Lung is a disease cause by an allergic reaction usually caused by breathing in the dust from mouldy hay. However, dust from any mouldy crop - straw, corn, silage, grain, or even tobacco - can also cause Farmer's Lung.

Fatty acid oxidation disorders

Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) are inborn errors of metabolism due to disruption of either mitochondrial β-oxidation or the fatty acid transport using the carnitine transport pathway.


Fetal is a posture characteristic of a fetus, with the back curved forwards and the limbs folded in front of the body.

Foodborne illnesses

A foodborne illness is caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances such as heavy metals. Examples include salmonella and giardia.


A gastrectomy is an operation to remove a part of the stomach or the whole of the stomach.


Gastroenteritis is the inflammation of the stomach and intestines, typically resulting from bacterial toxins or viral infection and causing vomiting and diarrhoea.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that develops during pregnancy and usually disappears after giving birth.

Group B streptococcus

Group B strep (GBS) is a type of bacteria that can cause severe infections.

Growth hormone deficiency

Growth hormone deficiency (GHD), also known as dwarfism or pituitary dwarfism, is a condition caused by insufficient amounts of growth hormone in the body.

Haemorrhagic stroke

A haemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened blood vessel supplying blood within the brain bursts, causing bleeding in or around the brain.


A hairline fracture, also known as a stress fracture, is a small crack or severe bruise within a bone.


Herniation can be caused by a number of factors that cause a mass effect and increase intracranial pressure (ICP): these include traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, or brain tumor.

Horner syndrome

Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil), and facial anhidrosis (loss of sweating) due to a disruption in the sympathetic nerve supply.


Hyperinsulinism (HI) is a genetic disorder in which the insulin cells of the pancreas, called beta cells, secrete too much insulin.


Hyperpigmentation is a common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin.


Hypoglycaemia, or a “hypo”, is an abnormally low level of glucose in your blood (less than four millimoles per litre). When your glucose (sugar) level is too low, your body doesn't have enough energy to carry out its activities.


Hypothermia is caused by prolonged exposures to very cold temperatures. When exposed to cold temperatures, your body begins to lose heat faster than it's produced. Lengthy exposures will eventually use up your body's stored energy, which leads to lower body temperature.


Hypotonia means decreased muscle tone. It can be a condition on its own, called benign congenital hypotonia, or it can be indicative of another problem.

Hypoxic brain injury

Hypoxic brain injuries are brain injuries that form due to a restriction on the oxygen being supplied to the brain. The restricted flow of oxygen causes the gradual death and impairment of brain cells.

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a type of brain damage. It's caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain before or shortly after birth.


A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes your uterus.

IV lines

An intravenous line (IV) is a soft, flexible tube placed inside a vein, usually in the hand or arm. Doctors use them to give a person medicine or fluids.


An Ileostomy is a stoma constructed by bringing the end or loop of small intestine out onto the surface of the skin, or the surgical procedure which creates this opening. Intestinal waste passes out of the ileostomy and is collected in an external ostomy system which is placed next to the opening.


Immunosuppressant is a class of medicines that inhibit or decrease the intensity of the immune response in the body.


a decision or judgement based on an understanding of the facts of the situation

Intraventricular haemorrhage

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the newborn is bleeding into the fluid-filled areas, or ventricles, surrounded by the brain


Intubation is a process where a healthcare provider inserts a tube through a person's mouth or nose, then down into their trachea (airway/windpipe).

Ischaemic stroke

An ischaemic stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks oxygen and blood supply to the brain.


Jaundice is a condition produced when excess amounts of bilirubin circulating in the blood stream dissolve in the subcutaneous fat (the layer of fat just beneath the skin), causing a yellowish appearance of the skin and the whites of the eyes.


Kernicterus is a type of brain damage that can result from high levels of bilirubin in a baby's blood.

Klumpke’s paralysis

Klumpke's paralysis is a form of paralysis involving the muscles of the forearm and hand, resulting from a brachial plexus injury.

Lack of testamentary capacity

Someone must have testamentary capacity in order to make or change a will. This means they must have the ability to understand what they're doing and the impact that it will have on their estate and anyone who might inherit.


Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis using small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.


Liposuction is a cosmetic procedure used to remove unwanted body fat.


Lupus occurs when the immune system, which normally helps protect the body from infection and disease, attacks its own tissues.


MRI is a type of diagnostic test that can create detailed images of nearly every structure and organ inside the body.

MRI scans

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRI is a type of diagnostic test that can create detailed images of nearly every structure and organ inside the body.


Malignant is used to describe harmful masses or tumors that are cancerous and that grow and spread disease.

Means tested

A financial assessment or means test works out if the council will pay towards your care.

Median nerve

The median nerve helps you move your forearm, wrist, hand and fingers. It also provides sensation to the forearm and certain parts of the hand.


Meningitis is inflammation of the lining around your brain and spinal cord. It can be very serious if not treated quickly.

Metabolic imbalances

Metabolic disorders are conditions that affect any aspect of metabolism.

Metabolic issues

Metabolic conditions include increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels.


Microdermabrasion is a cosmetic procedure that uses fine crystals and a vacuum to remove dead skin cells.

Muscle atrophy

Muscular atrophy is the decrease in size and wasting of muscle tissue. Muscles that lose their nerve supply can atrophy and simply waste away.


Musculoskeletal refers to locomotor system, made up of muscles, bones, joints and adjacent connective tissues


Necrosis is the death of the cells in your body tissues. Necrosis can occur due to injuries, infections or diseases. Lack of blood flow to your tissues and extreme environmental conditions can also cause necrosis.

Necrotising fascilitis

Necrotising fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tissues.


The neonatal period is the first 4 weeks of a child's life. It is a time when changes are very rapid.

Neonatal death

Neonatal death is defined as the death of a live born infant, regardless of gestational age at birth, within the first 28 completed days of life.

Neurological disorders

Neurological disabilities include a wide range of disorders, such as epilepsy, learning disabilities, neuromuscular disorders, autism, ADD, brain tumors, and cerebral palsy, just to name a few.


Obstetricians are trained to provide medical care during pregnancy (antenatal care), labour and birth, after the birth (postnatal care).

Occipital lobe

The occipital lobes sit at the back of the head and are responsible for visual perception, including colour, form and motion.


Oedema is a build-up of fluid in the body which causes the affected tissue to become swollen.

Oral cancer

Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and the back of the throat.

Oral candidiasis

Oral thrush — also called oral candidiasis — is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth.


Orthodontists are experts in correcting misalignments of the teeth and jaw.


Osteomyelitis is the inflammation of bone or bone marrow, usually due to infection.


Osteomyelitis is a painful bone infection. It usually goes away if treated early with antibiotics. It can cause serious long-term problems if it's not.


Osteonescrosis is the death of bone tissue.

PLO meetings

A PLO (Public law outline meeting) or PPM (Pre-Proceedings Meeting) is a meeting called by the Local Authority when they have concerns surrounding the care of your child/children.


Paraplegia is a term used to describe the inability to voluntarily move the lower parts of the body. The areas of impaired mobility usually include the toes, feet, legs, and may or may not include the abdomen.


A pathogen is defined as an organism causing disease to its host, with the severity of the disease symptoms referred to as virulence.

Periventricular leukomalacia

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of brain injury that is most common in babies born too soon (premature) or at low birthweight.

Phantom limb syndrome

Phantom limb syndrome is a condition in which patients experience sensations, whether painful or otherwise, in a limb that does not exist.


The placental membrane is where the mother and fetus exchange gases, nutrients, etc.


Pneumonia is an infection that affects one or both lungs. It causes the air sacs, or alveoli, of the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus.

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event.

Postnatal depression

Postnatal depression is a depressive illness which affects between 10 to 15 in every 100 women having a baby.


The postpartum period begins after childbirth and is typically considered to last for six weeks.


Pre-eclampsia is a condition that causes high blood pressure during pregnancy and after labour. It can be serious if not treated.

Prenuptial agreement

A prenuptial agreement, ante-nuptial agreement, or premarital agreement (commonly referred to as a prenup) is a written contract, agreed by a couple before they get marriage or enter a civil union. It lets them choose and control many of the legal rights they have when they get married, and what happens if their marriage ends by death or divorce.


A prosthesis is a man-made substitute for a missing body part.


A prosthetic is a man-made substitute for a missing body part.


Psychological relates to the mind or mental activity.

Psychological assessments

A psychological assessment is gathering information to evaluate a person's behavior, character, strengths, and needs for the purpose of determining the sort of treatment needed.


Quadriplegia, or tetraplegia, is a condition where all four limbs experience paralysis.

Respiratory distress syndrome

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common breathing disorder that affects newborns.

Rh incompatibility

Rh incompatibility is a condition that develops when a pregnant woman has Rh-negative blood and the baby in her womb has Rh-positive blood.

Rhesus disease

Rhesus disease is a condition where antibodies in a pregnant woman's blood destroy her baby's blood cells. Rhesus disease doesn't harm the mother, but it can cause the baby to become anaemic and develop jaundice.


Rhinoplasty is surgery that changes the shape of the nose.

Root canal treatment

A root canal treatment is a dental procedure to remove inflamed or infected pulp on the inside of the tooth.


Rubella (german measles) is a rare illness that causes a spotty rash. It usually gets better in about a week, but it can be serious if you get it when you're pregnant.

Sacral injuries

Depending on the type of sacral injury or nerve damage, its location affects the nerves in that area and leads to lack of control and pain.

Scaphoid fractures

A scaphoid fracture is a break in one of the small bones of the wrist.


Being sectioned means that you are kept in hospital under the Mental Health Act.


Sepsis is a serious condition in which the body responds improperly to an infection.

Spastic cerebral palsy

Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type of cerebral palsy and causes involuntary movements, difficulty walking, and muscle weakness.

Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower part of your back.


Stillbirth is when a baby dies in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.


A stoma is a surgically made hole in the abdomen that allows body waste to be removed from the body directly through the end of the bowel into a collection bag.

Stress fractures

Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances.

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

A subarachnoid haemorrhage is an uncommon type of stroke caused by bleeding on the surface of the brain. It's a very serious condition and can be fatal.

Subdural hematoma

A subdural haematoma occurs when a blood vessel in the space between the skull and the brain (the subdural space) is damaged.


Tendonitis is inflammation of the thick fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone. These cords are called tendons.


Your thoracic spine is the middle section of your spine. It starts at the base of your neck and ends at the bottom of your ribs. It's the longest section of your spine.


Thrombolytics or fibrinolytic are a group of medications used to manage and treat dissolving intravascular clots.


Torticollis is a common phenomenon when your neck muscles spasm and your neck twists to the side.


Toxoplasmosis is a common infection that you can catch from the poo of infected cats, or infected meat. It's usually harmless but can cause serious problems in some people.

Transient ischaemic attack

A transient ischaemic attack, also known as a mini-stroke, is similar to a full stroke, but lasts a shorter time.

Transient neonatal hyperinsulinism

Transient hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia means that the increased insulin production is only present for a short duration and is found in conditions such as: Intrauterine growth retardation.


Tumours are groups of abnormal cells that form lumps or growths.

Urinary tract

The urinary tract is the body's drainage system for removing urine, which is made up of wastes and extra fluid.


Urodynamic studies (UDS) test how well the bladder, sphincters, and urethra hold and release urine.


Urology, also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the urinary-tract system and the reproductive organs.


A urostomy is a surgical procedure that creates a stoma for the urinary system. A urostomy is made to avail for urinary diversion in cases where drainage of urine through the bladder and urethra is not possible, e.g. after extensive surgery or in case of obstruction.

Vascular diseases

Vascular disease includes any condition that affects your circulatory system, or system of blood vessels.


A ventouse (vacuum cup) is an instrument that uses suction to attach a plastic or metal cup on to your baby's head.


Vertigo is a symptom, rather than a condition itself. It's the sensation that you, or the environment around you, is moving or spinning.

Wrong site surgery

Wrong site surgery may involve operating on the wrong side.

cerebral palsy

A condition marked by impaired muscle coordination (spastic paralysis) and/or other disabilities, typically caused by damage to the brain before or at birth.

core participants

A Core Participant is a person, an organisation or other entity with a significant interest in the Inquiry and designated a Core Participant in the Inquiry pursuant to Rule 5 of the Inquiry Rules 2006.

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